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Full text of "Axiological Measurement of Human value Factors in Mental Processes."

ISSN 0281-9864 



Axiological Measurement 
of Human Value Factors 
in Mental Processes 



Bernhard Bierschenk 
Jan Mattsson 




Lund University 
Sweden 



KOGNITIONSVETENSKAPLIG 
FORSKNING 

Cognitive Science Research 



Axiological Measurement 
of Human Value Factors 
in Mental Processes 



Bernhard Bierschenk 
Jan Mattsson 



1987 No. 22 



Communications should be sent to: 
Cognitive Science Research 
Paradisgatan 5 
Lund University 
S-223 50 Lund 

Coordinator: Bernhard Bierschenk 
Department of Psychology 



Abstract 
Modern behavioral research focuses on the possibility of 
a direct measurement of value preferences . These are conceived as 
important casual variables of behavior. The article presents a 
method and a procedure for the measurement and representation of 
human value factors . By means of Perspective Text Analysis mental 
processes of workers from Sweden, England, West Germany, Italy 
and the United States were captured and topographically 
represented elsewhere. In this study, the mental processes are 
measured in accordance with an axiological approach. The outcome 
of the valuation is represented in sequential flow charts . The 
experimental subjects were 35 randomly selected mechanics. The 
results show great variations in the pattern of displayed 
valuations. Each pattern is characterized by a distinctive value 
factor. 



Nobody should be surprised to find that a profound analysis 
of . human value systems leads to insights into the way we may 
change our ecological and social conditions . This is the tenet of 
Sperry's (1983) work on science and morality priority. In this 
article we analyse the results of Perspective Text Analysis in 
order to map the axiological values of mental processes as they 
are embedded in language . 
Perspective Text Analysis 

Perspective Text Analysis is an ecologically oriented 
theory of information synthesis. It rests on a model for the 
analysis of intentionality and orientation as expressed in 
natural language. Language has the central function of being a 
cognitive instrument for conveying valuations to and from the 
human being. We have noticed in the research literature a renewed 
interest in analysis of verbal behavior, like content analysis 
and related approaches (Gottschalk, Lolas, & Viney, 1986). 
Traditional content analysis is object-governed. This means that 
knowledge of a subject's mental state can be obtained only to the 
extent that its produced words can serve as symbols for facts to 
be associatively linked to networks of concepts, for example 
semantic networks , whose theoretical implication may vary between 
scientists and over time. In contrast, the method of Perspective 
Text Analysis is subject-governed. By this is meant that a text 
producer, the agent, is the point of reference in the analysis. 
The underlying model makes the distinction between the objective 
facts of a text and their perspective information. Through a 
transcendental logic of natural language, the method via 
multivariate analysis has as its result a conceptual structure 
describing and synthesizing what the producer of the text is 



conscious of (Bierschenk & Bierschenk, 1986, a,b,c; 1987). In 
such an analysis the structure is visualized as a cube in which 
the text producer's conceptualizing process and reasons are 
projected against the background and bottom respectively of the 
cube, while the perspective is projected against the foreground 
and top. 

What should be especially pointed out here is that the 
higher order relations abstracted are structurally represented by 
means of topologically described dimensions. The perspective and 
ecological invariants lying in the textual flow are made visible 
by the transformations depicted in the form of the cubic space. 
The cognitive process which develops in such a space will be the 
starting point for an axiological analysis of concept and concept 
relations . 
Axiological Value Types 

Axiology is the study of the nature of values and value 
judgment. Hartman (1967) proposed axiology as the science of 
values or moral conduct. He stipulates that values of life exist 
within three fundamental dimensions: (1) personal and spiritual, 
(2) practical and situational, and (3) theoretical and normative. 
Within this three dimensional space, the personal and spiritual 
values refer to the intrinsic nature of the person. By intrinsic 
it is meant that which is unique and irreplacable in a person's 
being. The practical and situational values address extrinsic 
aspects of human life. By extrinsic it is referred to values of 
everyday life, everything that can be captured by the perceptual 
system. Everything concrete, tangible, and material in space and 
time would qualify for the second dimension. The theoretical and 
normative values are related to the ideational world, addressing 



all kinds of theories, systems, models, rules, and concepts, that 
is, the abstractions of the human mind. 

All objects and values can be conceived to be of an 
intrinsic, an . extrinsic, or a systemic nature. The formal 
combination of object and value in a 3 2 dimensional matrix 
gives rise to nine different axiological value types (Table 1). 
Further, each axiological value has a positive and a negative 
aspect. Thus the value spectrum consists of a total of eighteen 
values. The definition of "an axiological value" contains the 
formal relation of the intention of a concept (norm) and its 
extension (object) . An object has value to the degree that it 
fulfills the intention of its concept. Operationally expressed 
this means that the value is a measure of how well objects stand 
up to norms. The part of the norm that is fulfilled is defined as 
positive value, and the part that is non-fulfilled is defined as 
negative value. 

Validity and reliability . Hartman has been called the 
world's first applier of formal axiology (Austin & Garwood, 
1977). The foundations of Hartman' s major work (1967) have been 
found tenable by his colleagues (Austin & Garwood, 1977; Davis, 
1978; Moore, 1973). To apply his theory, Hartman orders the 
different axiological values in a reference order. His value 
profile (HVP) (Hartman, 1973) uses two scales of eighteen items 
(Table 1). Each item corresponds to one type of axiological value 
for two specified objects of valuation, namely the world and the 
self . 

As can be seen from Table 1, there are two orders. The second 
contains a minor revision of Hartman 's reference order by Schildt 
(1983). He developed a Swedish version which he calls the 



Table 1 

Construction of Axioloqical Value Types together with their 

Reference Orders 

Position number Hartman (HVP) order Schildt (PS) order 

z 1 I 

1 i' i' 

E E 

2 i' I / 

S S 

3 1/ 1/ 

I I 

4 E^ E^ 

I E 

5 S / E / 

E S 

6 E' e' 

S I 

7 e' s' 

E E 

8 S / S / 

s s 

9 S / S / 

10 S S 

x s N s 

11 s s 

X E ^E 

12 E S 

^S \[ 

13 E E 

^E \j 

14 S E 

15 E E 

16 II 

X S ^S 

17 II 

^E V E 

18 I I 

Note ; A positive intrinsic valuation (I-norm) of an extrinsic 

E 
object (E-object) is written I^ , i.e., I norm "looks up to" E 

object. A negative systemic valuation (S-norm) of an extrinsic 

object (E-object) is written S , i.e., S-norm "looks down on" 

V E 
E-object. 



Provaluator System (Schildt, 1986). In this order a slight change 
was made mainly concerning the positions of systemic valuations 
of intrinsic objects (persons ) (from fifteen to twelve and five to 
seven) . The reference order now used is a fully symmetric one for 
which the distances at the ends are greater than in the middle. 
Research on the reliability of the two orders has shown that both 
can reliably be applied (Bystam & Freund, 1977; Elliott, 1969; 
Hartman, 1973; Lohman, 1968; Mattsson, 1987; 1988; Schildt, 
1983) . 

Method 

The valuation of mental processes takes its departures 
in an article on consciousness as a function of knowledge and 
culture (Bierschenk & Bierschenk, 1987). The article reports five 
different cubic spaces on the basis of culture as the 
differentiating variable. For the purpose of ordering the 
concepts and concept relations in correspondence with Table 1, 
the Figure component of the cubes will be analyzed. The Figure 
component denotes what is figurative in the text and is projected 
on the background of the cubic space. 
Subjects 

A Swedish multinational company asked their workers 
three open-ended questions concerning information management and 
use. The process of selection resulted in five groups of workers, 
each group containing seven randomly selected subjects. The 
groups represent five cultural contexts: Sweden, England, West 
Germany, Italy, and the United States. 
Materials 

Unrestricted verbal responses to the following questions 
were analyzed: 



8 

1. Do you have any ideas /suggestions how to encourage more 
mechanics to use the service manuals? 

2 . Do you have any suggestion how getting information to you 
can be improved? 

3. Do you think too much (or too little) paper 
(information) is sent out? 

These questions highlight different aspects of import to the 
management and selective dissemination of information. To 
counterbalance the variation in translation they have been 
treated as if one single question was posed. 
Design and Procedure 

The cubic space representation is especially suitable when 
reliable observations consist of discontinuities, that is, 
singularities . Singularities are the highest points of a curve 
and. have theoretical foundation in topology. This means that 
singularities can be conceived as invariants . As is shown in 
Bierschenk & Bierschenk (1987), the sides of the planes 
representing the curve are made up of terminal states . These are 
the result of cluster analyses, while the singularities within 
the plane describe the cycles and paths of the transformational 
process, which created the text. All concepts generated will now 
be studied with respect to their closest axiological 
correspondence . 

Results 
The mental processes of the workers in the five different 
cultural settings are described in Bierschenk & Bierschenk (1987, 
pp 12, 15, 19, 23, and 29). These are represented with respect to 
their axiological values in Figures 1-5. As will become obvious 
in the following, there are great variations between the five 



cultures . 

The Valuation of the Mental Process of Swedish Workers 

As can be seen from Figure 1, the process is governed by- 
three terminal states and has produced two singularities . The 
process starts with the terminal state named TECHNICAL 
SIMPLIFICATION, which is the prototypical description of the 
cluster which represents the starting point for the process (step 
0). It carries the smallest positive axiological value (9) 
implying a systemic valuation of a systemic object. When the 
process passes through the next terminal state (step 1) the 
concept is transformed by a concept SIMPLE-MINDEDNESS, which 
carries considerable negative value (13). According to Table 1, 
second order, the concept signals a negative extrinsic valuation 
of a systemic object. Thus it gives expression to a non-effort 
vis-a-vis the technical system. The result of the transformation 
is the first singularity in the process named UNSOPHISTICATION. 
The concept addresses a lack of systemic qualities in the person- 
system interaction. The corresponding axiological value to be 
found in Table 1 is the least negative one (10). At the second 
and final step the concept LABOUROUSNESS operates and transforms 
the first singularity into LACK OF QUALITY. Labourousness 
expresses a negative systemic valuation of an extrinsic object 
(11). This means that the worker is forced to invest time into 
work. This transformation results in a negatively valued 
singularity of identical value type (11). Thus a negative 
systemic evaluation of something extrinsic to the worker, namely 
work, is at hand. 

Looking at the process as a whole from the axiological 
point of view, it is characterized by a few values of which four 



10 




1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 

Figure 1 . Mental process of Swedish workers as sequential flow in 
the axiological reference order. The vertical axis shows the rank 
order and horizontal the realized steps in the process. Circles 
represent terminal states . Dots indicate the results of the 
transformations. Lines between dots or circles and dots 
depict the course of the process. The arrows indicate 
directionality. A dot within a circle implies that the 
operating terminal state produced no change in the 
value of the resulting singularity. 



11 

out of five carry a negative valuation. The concepts express a 
disinterest in technical information, and an unconcernedness with 
job quality. Further, the process is very simple. It shows no 
signs of jumps, that is, value enrichment. The process has no 
subcycles and ends in the negative sphere. 
The Valuation of the Mental Process of English Workers 

The initial state of the process produced by the English 
workers, as visualized in Figure 2, gives expression to MODEL 
CRITICISM. Model in this case refers to the abstract aspect of a 
product. Thus the process takes its departure in a negative 
systemic valuation of a systemic object (10). The next terminal 
state to be passed is called LACK OF INFORMATION, which refers to 
the same value type (10). This negatively valued concept brings 
about the first singularity PREPAREDNESS RESTRICTIONS. The 
outcome of the transformation is an even more negatively valued 
concept. Its implication is a negative systemic perspective on 
concrete actions. Actions are seen as extrinsic objects, which 
give rise to the axiological value (11). In the next step, the 
terminal state EMBARRASSMENT forces the curve to continue in the 
negative direction. The concept means that the workers are forced 
into a situation where they have to perform under the risk of 
loosing their face. Thus a negative extrinsic valuation of the 
intrinsic object, the self, is denoted with the value (15). The 
result of this transformation leads to the singularity 
INFEASIBILITY carrying the value (14). The axiological value 
signals a situation where it is impractical to carry out the 
expected work, which means a negative extrinsic valuation of 
something extrinsic, namely, work. The following transformations 
brought about by the concept of OVERABUNDANCE forces the curve to 



12 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 



-e 1 3 3— H 6 — »» 




Figure 2 . Mental process of English workers as sequential flow in 
the axiological reference order. The vertical axis shows the rank 
order and horizontal the realized steps in the process. Circles 
represent terminal states. Dots indicate the results of the 
transformations. Lines between dots or circles and dots 
depict the course of the process. The arrows indicate 
directionality . 



13 

its lowest point. The concept refers to the impracticality of too 
much imf ormation, which gives expression to a negative extrinsic 
valuation of a systemic object (13). This creates the singularity 
named DISCONTENTMENT. It implies a negative intrinsic valuation 
of the work place, which is an extrinsic object (17). This is a 
very strong negative outcome of the process and would be a rather 
serious state were it the final outcome. Fortunately it can be 
observed a major jump into the positive direction. At the fourth 
step in the process, the terminal state INSTRUCTIONAL AID implies 
a positive systemic view (8) on carrying out the actual work. 
This jump transforms the negative attitude into SERVICE SUPPORT. 
The concept generates a positive practical valuation of the 
actual work (5). At the fifth and final step the terminal state 
ORGANIZATION OF MEDIATION, which is a systemic view on the actual 
functioning of the communication (extrinsic object), leads to 
value (9). The transformation brought about moves the process 
towards a less positive valuation in that INFORMATION QUALITY 
expresses a systemic view on a systemic object (8). However, the 
process settles in its final phase on a positive axiological 
valuation. 

By summarizing the outcome of the valuation of the 
mental process of the English workers, it can be stated that it 
is richer compared to the Swedish case. It has a longer cycle and 
shows a major jump from the negative sphere into the positive. 
The negative part of the curve concentrates on the inefficiency 
of service support, while the second part clearly points towards 
a more positive outlook, that is, towards possible solutions. 
The Valuation of the Mental Process of West German Workers 

The mental process of the West German workers is 



14 • 

depicted in Figure 3 . The terminal state which initiates the 
process is called AQUISITION OF INSTRUCTION. The practical 
treatment of knowledge is at the core implying a positive 
extrinsic valuation of an intrinsic object (6). The transition 
through the next state produces a transformation in the positive 
direction. The transformation is brought about by SERVICE KEY 
which is associated with a positive systemic view on an 
extrinsic object, namely service work (8). The result is the 
singularity HIGH QUALITY SERVICE, which means an extrinsic view 
on an extrinsic object, that is, well done service (5). The curve 
produced thus far points towards high ambition and willingness to 
achieve performance of high standards. On the other hand, as 
shown in Figure 3, the curve indicates a steep fall into the 
negative sphere of the valuation. The transformation resulting in 
the downward move is due to the terminal state LACK OF 
EXPLANATION, which is a negative systemic view on an intrinsic 
object (12). This means that the workers are unable to make 
practical use of the information provided by the company. The 
resulting singularity is SERVICE DEGRADATION (14). A negative 
extrinsic view on an extrinsic object translates into a service 
resulting in an insufficient performance. The process continues 
into INFORMATION LAG, which carries another negative value (10). 
The transformation produces COMPETENCE REDUCTION (14). The deep 
fall into the negative value sphere indicates a perceived deficit 
in knowledge development and maintenance. From here, the process 
in its fifth and final step jumps back into the positive sphere. 
The transformation is brought about through the positive value 
associated with CONTROL OF INFORMATION PROCESSING (9). The 
concept is of purely systemic nature and leads to the final 



15 



© 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 




Figure 3 . Mental process of West German workers as 
sequential flow in the axiological reference order. The 
vertical axis shows the rank order and horizontal the realized 
steps in the process. Circles represent terminal states. Dots 
indicate the results of the transformations. Lines between dots 
or circles and dots depict the course of the process. The 
arrows indicate directionality. 



16 

point of the curve, namely KNOWLEDGE MAINTENANCE, which carries 
even higher positive value (6), an extrinsic view on a systemic 
object. 

Taken together, the mental process depicted and decribed 
shows a higher enrichment in that two jumps have come about. 
Further, the shape of its cycle shows a U-form. Both ends of the 
curve express an observational conduct. At the beginning of the 
process development, the West German workers state their criteria 
and at the end they indicate a wish for information control. At 
the bottom of the U-form they clearly express what is wanting 
with respect to their ambition to produce work of high quality. 
The Valuation of the Mental Process of Italian Workers 

In Figure 4, the mental process of the Italian workers 
is depicted. As can be seen, the process include two cycles. The 
longer one starts at step 0, the shorter one at step 7. The 
description will begin with the longer cycle. The initial state 
of that cycle is called LEARNING CONDITIONS and carries the 
axiological value (6). The initial state is transformed by a 
transition through the state called INSTRUCTION carrying the same 
value (6) as the initial state. The result of the transformation 
produces the first singularity of this cycle, which is named 
EDUCATION, having the same positive value (6) as the terminal 
state which led to this result. Therefore, the resulting 
singularity is shown within the operating terminal state. All 
three valuations refer to a practical aspect, indicated by a 
letter E in Table 1, of knowledge, indicated by a letter S.. 
Transformed by the state TESTING which carries the value (8), the 
resulting transformation is named DIAGNOSIS and has the same 
value as Testing. Thus the operational terminal state has not 



17 



1 _ 

.1 

3 
4 

5 .. 

6 .. 

7 

8 ., 
9 



10 

11 .. 

12 ., 

13 .. 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 1 




Figure 4 . Mental process of Italian workers as a sequential flow 
in the axiological reference order. The vertical axis shows the 
rank order and horizontal the realized steps in the process. 
Circles represent terminal states. Dots indicate the results of 
the transformations. Lines between dots or circles and dots 
depict the course of the process. The arrows indicate 
directionality. A dot within a circle implies that the operating 
terminal state produced no change in the value of the resulting 
singularity. 



18 

produced any change in the value of the singularity. At step 3, 
PROVISION (6) transforms Diagnosis into INSTRUCTIONAL SEQUENCE 
(8). The next following state, SPEED OF INFORMATION also carries 
a positive systemic value (9) and transforms the process into 
APPREHENSION (8), the mental understanding of something concrete. 
SUFFICIENCY OF INFORMATION transforms the Apprehension into 
ACQUISITION. Here, again, the operating terminal state produces 
no change in the valuation of the singularity. Both are 
associated with the value (6). MODES OF INSTRUCTION (5) 
transforms Acquisition into - INTELLECTUAL SKILLS (6). All these 
values define a narrow band. Conceptually they are tightly 
related. They include either an extrinsic valuation of a systemic 
object or concern the practicality of mental constructs. 

The second cycle of the process starts with TUTORAGE 
(6), which becomes transformed when the process transits through 
ADVANTAGE (8). The resulting singularity of the second cycle is 
EASE OF LEARNING (6). The valuation is not different from the 
values of the first cycle, but when the second cycle crosses the 
first one, a new singularity emerges, called ENABLEMENT (4). This 
is not only the highest point of the curves but also the highest 
value of the process. It corresponds to the practical development 
of personhood. 

In summary, the mental process of the Italian workers is 
characterized by a narrow band of values. There are no negative 
values and no jumps, which imply a certain degree of uniformity. 
However, two cycles have to be interpreted as an indication of 
higher structural richness. On the other hand, all that has been 
obtained is a peak at the value (4) aiming at the practical 
development of the self. What is produced by the process in its 



19 



intirety is a hopeful dwelling into the future. 

The Valuation of the Mental Process of American Workers 

The mental process pictured in Figure 5 shows two 
cycles . The second cycle starts at step 7 . In contrast to the 
description given, the first cycle starts with a rather negative 
valuation carried by the start state DECLINATION (13). The 
initial observation is that the information system does not 
function properly. This state is- transformed by the terminal 
state PERSONALIZATION (7). This is a positive value which 
expresses an S,-norm and an E,-object, that is, a humanisation of 
the flow of technical information. It results in a singularity 
carrying an even higher valuation, called ENABLEMENT (4), which 
by the transition through the state COORDINATION (8) produces 
CONSTRUCTIVENESS (5). The process now declines further when it 
moves through the state of INFORMATION ACCESS ( 6 ) , - which 
transforms the process into COGNITIVE OPERATION (8), that is, the 
ability to mentally handle reality. The state of REASONABLENESS 
implies the requirement of a positive systemic valuation (7) of 
an intrinsic object. The transformational outcome is RECOGNITION 
OF ABILITY (8). This result can be interpreted as a rational 
view (S_-norm) on the workers' practical ability manifesting 
itself in salary. The state METHODOLOGICAL INNOVATION (6) implies 
the functioning of a new technical system (E_-norm) in order to 
further positive outcomes (S.-object) . The curve now makes a major 
jump into the negative sphere. The source for this jump is the 
terminal state INFORMATION LAG (10). The produced singularity is 
the final one of the first cycle, indicating an AUTHORIZATION 
that is insufficient (11). 



20 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 





4 S — \ 6 7 — 8 9 — W 



Figure 5 . Mental process of American workers as sequential flow 
in the axiological reference order. The vertical axis shows the 
rank order and horizontal the realized steps in the process. 
Circles represent terminal states. Dots indicate the results of 
the transformations. Lines between dots or circles and 
dotsdepict the course of the process. The arrows indicate 
directionality . 



21 

The second cycle takes its departure in a negatively valued 
terminal state, LACK OF INFORMATION (10). The cycle continues 
through INFORMATION TIMING (9) and produces PROVISION ( 6 ) as the 
only singularity of the second cycle. Thus the second cycle 
concerns the actual handling of information. At the ninth step 
the second cycle crosses the first one leading to a major jump 
back into the positive sphere, resulting in the singularity 
EDIFICATION, which carries a positive extrinsic valuation (4) of 
an intrinsic object. Finally the process transits through the 
state of PRETENSION, which signals a positive feeling (2) towards 
the work (I.-norm, E-object). The resulting singularity is the 
highest of the entire process and is called WORTHINESS (1), the 
feeling of self-respect (1,-norm, I_-object) . 

In summing up, it can be concluded that the mental 
process of the workers from the United States shows not only 
structural variations as indicated by the two cycles, but also 
the highest degree of enrichment. The first cycle can be looked 
upon as a parabolic curve. Both ends reside in the sphere of 
negative valuation, while the curve itself gives expression to 
self-confidence. The workers perceive clearly a problem in the 
information management, which has to be solved by the company. 
They also contribute constructively to the solution of the 
problem. On the other hand, their confidence is not met by the 
company, which deprives them of the possibility of becoming 
authoritative in their field. The second cycle provides the 
conditions for their maintaining of self-respect, which raises 
the entire process into the highest valuation realm possible. 
Thus the entire process can be seen as the assertion of one's 
uniqueness . 



22 



Discussion 

The thesis underlying this article is that valuation is 
the result of an active inquiring agent and that his cognition 
rests on the extraction and abstraction of invariants . It is a 
mark of mentality that the agent always conceives the meaning of 
object-event relationships. As a consequence, the two key 
concepts perspective and viewpoint play a central role. 
Perspective Text Analysis rests on an algorithm that has the 
capacity to determine the agent function (perspective) which 
governs language production. Perspective control lies in the 
definition of the transposition of the agent. Thus the agent 
function determines what viewpoints are chosen and how they 
change throughout a text. 

The invariants lying in the textual flow have been made 
visible by the transformations depicted topologically in 
Bierschenk & Bierschenk (1987). The mental processes which have 
developed show substantial variations with respect to five 
cultural contexts . Based on the second axiological reference 
order in Table 1, "the human value factor" (Sperry, 19 83, p 9) 
has been extracted. 

The second thesis which is tested here is that the value 
of the objects can be directly perceived, which implies that the 
mental processes as visualized in Figures 1-5 directly reflect 
the valuations of these objects. 

The dynamics of the human value factor has resulted in five 
different profiles. The first to be considered is the profile 
pertaining to the Swedish sample. It is a very simple kind, 
limited in the number of values, and shows no enrichment. The 



23 

latent source which controls the verbal flow of the Swedish 
sample seems to be tied to a PESSIMISTIC value priority. A quick 
glance at the profile of the English workers shows an abrupt 
change signalling a discontinuity in their valuation. Although 
they produce the most severe negative point of view, nevertheless 
they manage to raise the curve, which is the inherent nature of 
CRITICISM. The value structure of the West German workers with 
its typical U-form, indicating two abrupt changes, is elaborated, 
comparatively concentrated, and balanced. According to the mental 
process they have produced, knowledge is limited to the 
communication of facts and experience, which is the core of 
POSITIVISM. The dynamics of the mental process produced by the 
Italian workers shows no abrupt changes . It moves rather smoothly 
towards its final singularity within the positive sphere. Their 
valuation seems to express reliance and hopefulness on the 
forthcoming possibilities, which should be at the very heart of 
OPTIMISM. The fifth and final profile shows two parts. The first 
can be described by a parabolic form, starting and ending in a 
negative valuation, although its main tenet is positive. The 
second part, characterized by a sharp rise, changes the profile 
towards the highest possible axiological valuation, that is, 
towards the self . This must be interpreted such that 
INDIVIDUALISM is the controlling and dominating factor when the 
American workers express their value priority. 

Inherent in the process of bringing out the human value 
factor is the process of transforming meaningful behavior into 
symbolic expressions. Thus subjective values become an integral 
part of objective brain processes. At this level the 
transformation entwines the perpective and viewpoints in the same 



24 

way as organism and environment are entwined. 

The analysis of symbolic expressions could not be 
carried out before we were able to experimentally detach the 
textual perspective from its viewpoints . This was done by means 
of the Perspective Text Analysis . We were able to use the 
extracted relations for a topographical description and 
axiological valuation of the perceived dimensions. On the basis 
of the textual transformations described and made visible in the 
form of the three-dimensional value space of Hartman, it became 
obvious that the world conceptually devides into five different 
profiles. Underlying these profiles are five human value factors, 
namely pessimism, criticism, positivism, optimism, and 
individualism. Thus the cognitive processes are not only 
different but also different in the conscious mental awareness, 
both in relation to each other and in relation to the source of 
observation. 

References 
Austin, J., & Garwood, B. (1977). The relationship of the Hartman 
value profile (HVTM, Rokeach value survey (RVS), Allport- 
Vernon-Lindsey study of values (AVL) and Kohlberq's theory of 
moral development (KMD^: a series of axiometric studies . 
Paper presented at the 1977 National Association of School 
Psychologists Convention, Cincinnati. OH. Muskegon, Michigan 
State University. 
Bierschenk, B., & Bierschenk, I. (1986). Concept formulation . 
Part 1. The phenomenon of cognition . (Kognitionsvetenskaplig 
forskning, Monograph No. 10). Lund, Sweden: Lund University, 
Department of Psychology, (a) 
Bierschenk, B., & Bierschenk, I. (1986). Concept formulation . 



25 



Part II_. Measurement of formulation processes . 

(Kognitionsvetenskaplig forskning, Monograph, No. 11). Lund, 

Sweden: Lund University, Department of Psychology, (b) 
Bierschenk, B., & Bierschenk, I. (1986). Concept formulation . 

Part III. Analysis of Mentality . (Kognitionsvetenskaplig 

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